Association Between Age, Sex, and Pre-Existing Health Conditions and Death of COVID-19 Patients


Faisal Muhammad ORCID 1 , 2 , *

1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Department of Social Work, School of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Information Technology and Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh

How to Cite: Muhammad F. Association Between Age, Sex, and Pre-Existing Health Conditions and Death of COVID-19 Patients, Ann Mil Health Sci Res. Online ahead of Print ; 18(1):e104270. doi: 10.5812/amh.104270.


Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research: 18 (1); e104270
Published Online: May 4, 2020
Article Type: Letter
Received: April 27, 2020
Accepted: April 28, 2020
Copyright © 2020, Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

Dear Editor,

The early report of China’s National Health Commission (NHC) revealed that about four-fifths (80.0%) of COVID-19 patients who died were above 60 years of age, and three-fourths (75.0%) of them had pre-existing health conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) also reported that 71.0% of the cases outside China were male (1). A study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients found that the median age was 56 years, and more than half (54.3%) of patients were men (2). Several recent studies reported that older people and people with pre-existing medical conditions such as diabetes, asthma, and heart diseases (CHD, CAD, heart failure, etc.) were found to be more vulnerable and at high risk of getting seriously ill. However, people of all ages can be infected. To protect vulnerable populations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) acknowledged being at risk due to pre-existing health conditions (3).

It is essential to understand that having a risk factor(s) for COVID-19 does not mean that a person may become seriously ill. However, the absence of a risk factor(s) does not mean that a person is automatically safe. According to the CDC, eight of every 10 COVID-19 deaths in the United States occurred in adults aged 65 or older. According to a study among hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 187), nearly three-tenths (28.0%) experienced a coronary event while in hospital, those who did were nearly twice as likely to die compared to those with no heart event (4). Another study conducted in China among COVID-19 patients revealed that diabetes was associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of death compared to people without diabetes (5). Other researchers opined that higher rates of obesity might be the reason for the increased mortality rate in Italy (6). As a new disease, COVID-19 is complicated even for scientists. However, social distancing and personal hygiene are the best ways to reduce the risk of being infected with coronavirus diseases.



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