Surveying respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims


Seyed Mansour Razavi 1 , * , Hossein Ziaee 1 , Talaat Mokhtari Azad 1 , Rasoul Hamkar 1 , Taher Doroodi 1 , Aliakbar Mirsalehian 1 , Farrokh Nakhjavan 1 , Farhad Nejat 1 , Hamidreza Sadeghipoor 1 , Ahmad Masoud 1 , Parivash Kordbacheh 1 , Farideh Zeini 1 , Mahin Saf Ara 1 , Mohammad Mir Afshar 1 , Kobra Bamdad Mehraban 1 , Farzaneh Bazarjani 1

1 Department of Social Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

How to Cite: Razavi S M, Ziaee H, Mokhtari Azad T, Hamkar R, Doroodi T, et al. Surveying respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims, Arch Clin Infect Dis. Online ahead of Print ; 2(2):67-70.


Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases: 2 (2); 67-70
Article Type: Research Article


Background: The annual Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca brings over two million people together in a small confined area. Respiratory involvement is the most common disease during this ceremony, and up to now no unique cause has been identified. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence and types of respiratory diseases and their associated etiologic agents.

Materials and methods: During this prospective study, seroconversion was assessed for bacteria, viruses and fungi on 170 Iranian pilgrims prior to departure and 2 weeks after convalescence and returning from the Hajj pilgrimage. Meanwhile, sputum specimens of 252 patients were cultured.

Results: The following viruses were detected: influenza type A and B (21.5%), adenovirus (36.2%), and RSV (1.9%). Among bacteria isolates, ?-haemolytic Streptococcous (9.7%), Haemophilus species (9.1%), Gram negative bacilli (20.6%), Legionella pneumophila (6.3%), Mycoplasma pneumonia (0.8%), and Chlamydia (32%) were more common, however, no fungal seroconversion was noted.

Conclusion: We suggest administration of Fluvaccin for high risk groups, adenoviral vaccine for volunteer pilgrims, erythromycin or azithromycine for empiric bacterial therapy, and Oseltamivir or Zanamivir for prophylaxis or treatment of influenza like illness.

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