Evaluation of Heating and Irradiation Methods for Production of Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis


N. Mosavari 1 , A. Karimi 2 , K. Tadayon 1 , Gh. Shahhosseini 3 , * , A. Zavaran Hosseini 4 , M. Babaie 1

1 . Reference Laboratory of Bovine Tuberculosis, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Nuclear Agriculture Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

4 Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Alborz, Iran

How to Cite: Mosavari N, Karimi A, Tadayon K, Shahhosseini G, Zavaran Hosseini A, et al. Evaluation of Heating and Irradiation Methods for Production of Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Arch Razi Inst. 2021 ; 75(4):e112526. doi: 10.22092/ari.2019.123082.1238.


Archives of Razi Institute: 75 (4); 439-449
Published Online: January 01, 2021
Article Type: Research Article
Received: May 20, 2019
Accepted: December 10, 2019


Tuberculin skin test, also known as the tuberculin or purified protein derivative (PPD) test, is an extensively applied diagnostic test for the detection of primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The production of PPD is accompanied by some difficulties that require a series of modifications in the production and purification processes. The present study aimed to determine the facilitation level of the manufacturing process by modifying evaluation methods for the production of PPD tuberculin. Mtb strains were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen media, and the cultured strains were inoculated into the Dorset-Henley liquid medium by the biphasic medium of potato-Dorset-Henley. After incubation, flasks containing cultured strain were selected for bacterial inactivation, and the optimal gamma radiation dose(s) was determined. Tuberculoproteins were precipitated by ammonium sulfate (AS) and Trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford and Kjeldahl protein assay methods. Finally, the lymphocyte transformation test and potency test were performed. Based on the results, the Dorset-Henley liquid medium is suitable for the massive growth of the bacterium. The transferal of Mtb from solid to liquid medium was directly carried out without intermediate culture. It was found that during tuberculoprotein production, heating at 100°C for 3 h would be safe for killing mycobacterium. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of heating and gamma irradiation (8 kGgy) killed all of the mycobacteria, while doses of 1, 1.5, and 7 kGy decreased a significant number of bacterial cells. The results also indicated that the concentration of tuberculoprotein extracted by TCA precipitation method was higher than that obtained by AS precipitation. The tuberculoproteins which were produced by these two methods in the lymphocyte transformation test were not significantly different in terms of potency (P>0.05). Moreover, due to the high volume of produced protein, the protein measurement was more efficiently carried out by the Kjeldahl method, compared to the Bradford method. Finally, the results of the present study demonstrated that in addition to the novel approach of gamma irradiation, optimum methods are efficient and applicable in the production of PPD tuberculin.


© 2021, Author(s). Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute.