Low Back Pain Functional Disability in Athletes; Conceptualization and Initial Development of a Questionnaire


Elham Zamani 1 , Ramin Kordi 1 , * , Ruhollah Nourian 2 , Negin Noorian 1 , Amir Hossein Memari 1 , Mohammad Shariati 3

1 Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 Noorafshar Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran

3 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

How to Cite: Zamani E, Kordi R, Nourian R, Noorian N, Memari A H, et al. Low Back Pain Functional Disability in Athletes; Conceptualization and Initial Development of a Questionnaire, Asian J Sports Med. Online ahead of Print ; 5(4):24281. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.24281.


Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: 5 (4); 24281
Published Online: November 9, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Received: January 29, 2014
Accepted: April 13, 2014


Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent causes of disability not only in the general population but also in athletes. Despite a large number of self-reported back specific disability questionnaires, there is no specific, well documented, outcome measure for athletes suffering from back pain.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the main descriptive themes representing functional disability in athletes due to LBP.

Patients and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to characterize the experiences of athletes with LBP. Twenty athletes with LBP were recruited and the main descriptive elements of their LBP related disability were extracted. Then a preliminary questionnaire using these themes was proposed.

Results: The main disability indicators were pain intensity; stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, sport specific skills, back range of motion (ROM), sitting, walking, sleep patterns, self-care, and recreational activities, fear of pain and avoidance behavior, and changes in sexual activity.

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that apart from non-sports items, some sport related items should be included in the assessment of LBP disability levels in athletes. Our results have also been organized as a preliminary LBP disability questionnaire for athletes.

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