The bibliography is a list of the cited references given at the end of a manuscript. We use the same reference style for all Kowsar journals. Kowsar accepts references based on a modified Vancouver style. Vancouver Style (a numbered style) follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
Writing and managing references using EndNote Software (http://www.endnote.com) is highly recommended. Preparing the references list using EndNote Software will be considered as an advantage to facilitate and accelerate the revision process of the manuscripts.
If you wish to take advantage of this, please use Endnote Software to prepare the references list and upload Endnote library (the file with .enl extension) during submission.
A template of Kowsar style is available here:
You can use this instruction based on your operating system: Install Additional Output Styles
You can use this instruction based on your operating system: Export EndNote Traveling Library
Based on our policy in Kowsar, at least 80% of the references must be retrieved from valid sources and have DOI. The number of valid references can be detected by Crossref Simple Text Query.
In the Kowsar style, the numbers are the only indication required in the text, allocated in ascending sequence, and presented in the text either in the brackets, or superscript format. For example: "..... with depression from increased telephone support (1), better cooperation be..... follow up (2-5,7,10)."
Type 1) Journal Article
Search the journal title in one of the below database. If you cannot find a particular journal title in the NLM database, check one of the following.
If you still cannot find an abbreviation, build one using the ISSN International Centre's LTWA (LTWA stands for List of Title Word Abbreviations, go to Access to the LTWA). For example, if you had an article from the fictitious Annals of Egyptian Nutrition, you would find the abbreviation for Annals (Ann), then the abbreviation for Egyptian (Egypt) and, finally, the abbreviation for Nutrition (Nutr) to come up with Ann Egypt Nutr.
Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al.Vitamin E and Respiratory Tract Iinfections in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
Type 2) Books
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
Organization(s) as author
Type 3) WWW document
Author's surname, initials. (Year) Document title. Journal title, Volume (part).
Drasin, Todd, Dutson, Erik and Gracia, Carlos. Use of a Robotic System as Surgical First Assistant in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199(3).