Role of hot springs’ hydrochemistry in Balneotherapy, Case Study: Fotoyeh and sanguyeh springs, western Hormozgan


Seyed Mohammad Mirhosseini 1 , * , Faramarz Moattar 2 , Ali Negarestani 3 , Abdol Reza Karbasi 4

1 PhD Student Department of Environmental Sciences, Islamic Azad University Sciences and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor Department of Environmental Engineering, Islamic Azad University Sciences and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.

4 Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

How to Cite: Mirhosseini S M , Moattar F, Negarestani A , Karbasi A R . Role of hot springs’ hydrochemistry in Balneotherapy, Case Study: Fotoyeh and sanguyeh springs, western Hormozgan, Hormozgan Med J. 2015 ; 19(3):e87550.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 19 (3); e87550
Published Online: July 29, 2013
Article Type: Research Article
Received: February 24, 2013
Accepted: July 29, 2013


Introduction: Hydrochemical properties of waters used in balneotherapy are very
important, as they play a key role in success or failure of this kind of treatment. There are
30 mineral and hot spas in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran, which are traditionally
used for treating diseases. In this study, hydrochemical properties of Fotoyeh and
Sanguyeh Springs, in western Hormozgan Province, are discussed and analyzed.
Methods: The mentioned springs’ water was sampled four times during different seasons
of 2012. Physicochemical factors including EC, pH, and temperature were measured
using portable devices at the sampling point; whereas primary and secondary ions were
measured using ICP, titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy and photoelectric flame
photometer in laboratory. Radon concentration also was measured by Rad7, an active
radon detector, at the sampling location.
Results: Measurements showed that the average total of minerals in Fotoyeh and
Sanguyeh springs is 5741 and 24037 mg/l and their mean electrical conductivities (EC)
were 9626 and 42550 μs/cm, respectively. Sodium cations, chloride and sulfate anions are
the most frequent primary ions of these springs. Concentration of some rare and
secondary elements and heavy metals in the mentioned springs varies from 0.1 ppb to 10
ppb and radon concentration in Sanguyeh and Fotoyeh Springs was 76.51 and 159.98
kBq/m3, respectively.
Conclusion: Water in Sanguyeh and Fotoyeh Springs is of sodium-chloride type with
high concentration of sulfate for treating rheumatism, lymphatism, Rickets, gynecological
diseases and localized swelling. Since concentration of some rare elements and heavy
metals such as copper, plumb, and antimony is high in these springs, drinking, vaporing
or injecting them in the framework of balneotherapy is not recommended. Likewise,
regarding high radon concentration in the Fotoyeh Spring, frequent and long-term uses
seem unhelpfu



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