The Validity, Diagnostic Value and Replicability of Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients


Tayebeh Rezaie nasab 1 , * , Ieraj Salehi 2 , Seyyed Moosa Kafi 3 , Sajad Rezaei 4

1 MSc of Psychology, Guilan University, Guilan.

2 Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, Guilan University, Guilan.

3 Associate Professor Department of Psychology, Guilan University, Guilan.

4 PhD Student of Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran.

How to Cite: Rezaie nasab T, Salehi I, Kafi S M, Rezaei S. The Validity, Diagnostic Value and Replicability of Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Hormozgan Med J. 2014 ; 18(4):e87732.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 18 (4); e87732
Published Online: November 27, 2012
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 19, 2012
Accepted: November 27, 2012


Introduction: Bender Gestalt test is one of the most famous neuropsychological tests that
are simple and it can be used to examine brain injuries. The objective of this research was to
investigate the validity, diagnostic strength and the replicability of the Bender Visual-Motor
Gestalt Test in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Methods: 240 participants were tested in a case-control study to examine the validity of
this test in two groups included 120 patients with TBI and normal cases. All participants
were involved in the study by non-probability and consecutive sampling method. The
normal group was matched with the TBI group in terms of age, gender and education level.
The Bender Gestalt Test, neurological and dissectional information questionnaire, the
demographic variable lists of the patients and the mini-mental examination test (MMSE)
were used to collect the data.
Results: Findings showed that patients with TBI showed more frequency in Gestalt test's
dozen errors than the normal group. The discriminant validity coefficient showed that, in
total 98.3% of the participants had been placed correctly in two normal and patient groups.
The concurrent validity coefficient with the MMSE was -0.53 and the item-total correlation
of this test were in a range of 0.10 to 0.48. The replicability results of this test among three
examiners through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculations were 0.81 and the
cronbach's Alpha coefficient for the total sample was 0.85.
Conclusion: This test has an acceptable discriminant and replicability strength. Regarding
the obtained validity and reliability coefficients, it is recommended that this test be applied
with the paraclinical diagnostic tools (such as CT-scan and MRI) as the screening tools in
patients with TBI.



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