Prognostic molecular markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review article)


Mohammadreza Noori Daloii 1 , * , Fatemeh Alizadeh 2

1 Professor Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Student of Master of Human Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

How to Cite: Noori Daloii M, Alizadeh F. Prognostic molecular markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review article), Hormozgan Med J. 2013 ; 15(2):e88240.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 15 (2); e88240
Published Online: April 17, 2011
Article Type: Review Article
Received: November 16, 2010
Accepted: April 17, 2011


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th commonest malignancy worldwide and is the
third most common cause of cancer-related death. The prevalence is different in the
world. The ability to predict patients at higher risk of recurrence and with a poor prognosis
would help to guide surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment according to individual risk.
As understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis has increased, the myriad of genetic and
molecular events that drive the hepatocarcinogenic disease process, including angiogenesis,
invasion and metastasis, have been identified. With advances in understanding of tumor
biology, interest in molecular biomarkers of carcinogenesis has grown, both in terms of
their prognostic significance and also their potential as therapeutic targets. Several molecular
markers with prognostic significance have been identified in HCC. Not only these molecules
may allow accurate prediction of prognosis of patients with HCC and allow targeting of
therapy, but they may also represent novel targets for therapeutic agents.
The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge regarding the prognostic role
of the most important molecular biomarkers in HCC. In this article prognostic value of the
following molecular markers is discussed: tumor suppressor genes; oncogenes; cell cycle
regulators; apoptotic regulators; markers of angiogenesis; markers of invasion and
metastasis; growth factors and receptors; telomerase; markers of genomic instability;
aneuploidy and markers of microsatellite instability.



  • 1.

    References are included in the PDF.

  • © 2013, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.