Fauna and Bioecology of Sand flies in Jask country, the endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hormozgan, Iran


Kourosh Azizi 1 , * , Sajad Fekri 2

1 Associate Professor Department of Medical Entomology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 BSC Department of Diseases Control, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

How to Cite: Azizi K, Fekri S. Fauna and Bioecology of Sand flies in Jask country, the endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hormozgan, Iran, Hormozgan Med J. 2011 ; 15(1):e88375.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 15 (1); e88375
Published Online: November 01, 2010
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 03, 2010
Accepted: November 01, 2010


Introduction: The cutaneous leishmaniasis has been regularly spread in Iran. Jask County
which has been located in the eastern part of Hormozgan province had the most cases of
patients. The present study aimed to investigate on the fauna and biology of sand flies.
Methods: In this descriptive, cross sectional study, during 2007-2008, sand flies were
captured using sticky papers and CDC miniature light traps. Flies species were identified
using microscopic method. Parity rate was examined by dissection to cheqeur accessory
glands for pigments. The ELISA method was used for detection of anthropophagic index.
Results: A total of 8123 sand flies were caught, so as 57.52% were male and 42.49%
female (39.07% and 60.93% were caught indoor and outdoor, respectively). The fauna was
identified 8 species (2 Phlebotomus and 6 Sergentomyia). Phlebotomus major was reported
for the first time in Hormozgan province. P. papatasi and P. salehi were the dominant
species. Monthly activity of sand flies begins at the end of Esfand, lasting to mid Azar with
two peaks, the first in Ordibehesht – Khordad and the second one in Mehr-Aban. The
parous rate was high (≥70%) at the second peak. The dominant species showed high
anthropophagic index (29.6% and 18%, respectively).
Conclusion: Although the sand flies fauna is poor in Jask County but they are highly
diverse. P. papatasi and P. salehi transmit the Leishmania parasite from reservoir rodents to
human. According to the endophility, residual spraying twice a year (Esfand and Shahrivar)
could be effective in hyperendemic villages.



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