Gestational diabetes mellitus


Mohammad Afkhami Ardakani 1 , * , Maryam Rashidi 2

1 Associate Professor Department of Internal Medicine, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yaz, Iran.

2 General Practitioner, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

How to Cite: Afkhami Ardakani M, Rashidi M. Gestational diabetes mellitus, Hormozgan Med J. 2007 ; 11(1):e89060.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 11 (1); e89060
Published Online: November 12, 2006
Article Type: Review Article
Received: January 09, 2005
Accepted: November 12, 2006


Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of
glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The prevalence
range from 1 to 14% of all pregnancies, depending on the population studied and the
diagnostic tests employed. Risk assessment for GDM should be undertaken at the
prenatal visit. Women with clinical characteristics of GDM should undergo glucose
testing as soon as possible. If they are found not to have GDM at that initial
screening, they should be retested between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation.
Women of average risk should have testing undertaken at 24-28 weeks of gestation.
Low risk status requires no glucose testing. Risk factors of GDM include, obesity,
history of diabetes in first degree relatives, previous history of diabetes, glycosuria,
history of birth with more than 4 kg still birth or malformation, polyhydamnius, age
more than 25 years, member of an ethnic group with a high prevalence of diabetes,
maternal low birth weight.
GDM of any severity increases the risk of fetal macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia,
heart hyperthrophy, jaundice, polycythemia, and hypocalcemia, obesity and still birth.



  • 1.

    References are included in the PDF.

  • © 2007, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.