Hygiene condition of Bandar Abbas swimming pools, 2003


Kavoos Dindarloo 1 , * , Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi 2 , Shahram Zare 3 , Hossein Aidi 4 , Mehregan Heidari 5

1 Instructors, Departments of Environmental Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

2 Entomology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

3 Assistant professor, Community Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

4 Environmental Health Officer of Bandar Abbas Health Center, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

5 Environmental Health Officer of Bandar Abbas Health Center, Banda Abbas, Iran.

How to Cite: Dindarloo K, Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Zare S , Aidi H, Heidari M. Hygiene condition of Bandar Abbas swimming pools, 2003, Hormozgan Med J. 2005 ; 9(1):e90302.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 9 (1); e90302
Published Online: April 10, 2005
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 10, 2004
Accepted: April 10, 2005


Introduction; Swimming pools are one of the important recreational places that
due to direct relationship to different groups of people, can be a good carrier for
bacterial, fungal and parasite diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate
hygiene condition of the pools.
Material and methods: In this descriptive study, all of active swimming pools of
Bandar Abbas (based on Salvato recommendation) were selected for sampling.
The number of microbial and fungal samples was 84 and 165 respectively. The
volume of samples was 100, 250 and 1000 cc and sampling period was two
weekly and sampling was random. Free residual chlorine and turbidity rates were
tested respectively by DPD method and Lovivond turbid meter, the range of later
instrument was 0-1000 NTU. Attention to hygienic and safety subjects by
swimmers and operators was surveyed by questionnaire and results were analyzed
by statistical indexes such as central indexes and Pearson correlation coefficient
(P<0.05= significant).
Results: Chlorination of pools water in 47.3% of cases was suitable, 17.5% was
unsuitable and 35.2% was zero. Variation rate of pH was 6.8-7.8 and turbidity in
all of samples was less than 1 NTU and variation rate of turbidity in two cases
was 1.4-9.4 NTU. 18% of total samples were polluted by Coli form bacteria.
Relationship between chlorination rate and Coli form pollution was significant
(r=0625 and P<0.05).
The most important funguses separated from water were Aspergillus niger
44.11%, Yeast sp 35.8% Candida 33.09%, aspergillus sp 32.63%, Fusarium
27.29%, Cladspoum sp 25.79% and mucor 21.09% (no significance relationship
to chlorination).
Attention to safety subjects by operators was 80% and attention to hygienic
subjects by swimmers was 60%.
Conclusion: Attention to water disinfection, turbidity and pH control is effective
in microbial pollution reduction but it is not a unique way in prevention of fungal
pollution. Health habits such as body washing with soap before use of pool,
correct using of entrance chlorine basin and basic sanitation of pools can reduce
fungal pollution.



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