Molecular Epidemiology of High-Risk Types of Human Papillomaviruses (16, 18) in Pap-Smear, the North East of Iran


A Moradi 1 , Sepideh Bakhshandeh Nosrat 2 , * , S Besharat 1

1 Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (GRCGH), Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Golestan, Iran

2 Infectious Disease Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Golestan, Iran

How to Cite: Moradi A, Bakhshandeh Nosrat S , Besharat S. Molecular Epidemiology of High-Risk Types of Human Papillomaviruses (16, 18) in Pap-Smear, the North East of Iran, Int J Cancer Manag. 2011 ; 4(3):e80745.


International Journal of Cancer Management: 4 (3); e80745
Published Online: September 30, 2011
Article Type: Research Article
Received: November 23, 2010
Accepted: June 27, 2011


Background: Cervical Cancer is one of the most important and commonly diagnosed types of cancer in females. There are different causes of cervical cancer, amongst which recurrent and persistent infection with HPV types 16 and 18 are the most renowned ones. These genotypes are the main factors in 99 % of cases in developed countries and 70 % in developing ones. Due to the importance of these viruses in cervical cancer, molecular detection of HPV and its high risk genotypes in Gorgan was designed.

Methods: Pap smears and swabs specimens were taken from 308 women. Papanicola staining method and cytology were used. Nucleic acid was extracted by proteinase K phenol-chloroform standard method and then assessed by using beta-globin primer. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was then performed for papilomaviruses on all patients and positive cases from both types, including HPV 16 and 18 genotypes, were detected.

Results: Three hundred and eight women (15-75 years old) with mean age of 37.54±10.6 were recruited. Seventy six cases (20.1%) of whom were infected with HPV and 48.6% with HPV16 or 18 positive. Normal cytology was seen in 226 cases and 41 patients (18.1%) were HPV positive. Amongst those 152 cases with inflammation or abnormal cytology, 35 cases (23%) were HPV positive. No significant relation was reported between different variables and HPV infections.

Conclusions: Due to high rate of HPV infection, as well as its high risk genotypes in different studies, more careful screening of women by Pap smear is recommended.


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