Changes in Serum Leptin During Phases of Menstrual Cycle of Fertile Women: Relationship to Age Groups and Fertility


Olawole Micheal Ajala 1 , Paul Sunday Ogunro 2 , * , Gabriel Folorunsho Elusanmi 3 , Olugbemiga Ebenezer Ogunyemi 3 , Abidemi Abibat Bolarinde 4

1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Lagos State Laboratory Services Lagos Island General Hospital, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, [email protected], Nigeria

3 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicne, Ogun State University, Nigeria

4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ngeria

How to Cite: Ajala O M, Ogunro P S, Elusanmi G F, Ogunyemi O E, Bolarinde A A. Changes in Serum Leptin During Phases of Menstrual Cycle of Fertile Women: Relationship to Age Groups and Fertility, Int J Endocrinol Metab. Online ahead of Print ; 11(1):27-33. doi: 10.5812/ijem.6872.


International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: 11 (1); 27-33
Published Online: December 21, 2012
Article Type: Original Article
Received: June 19, 2012
Accepted: August 11, 2012


Background: It is established that serum level of leptin is affected by transitional phases of reproduction. It is also reported that the puberty is triggered when body fat and circulating levels of leptin exceed the critical thresholds, butthere is less focus on the serum level of leptin and its relationship with different phases of menstrual cycle and the fertility.

Objectives: The present study try to determines the serum concentration of leptin and fertility hormonesin the various phases of normal menstrual cycle of fertile women and compare any difference in serum concentration between age groups of 18-30 years and 31-41 years It is a well known fact that fertility start to decrease from age 31 years.

Patients and Methods: A total of 118 healthy fertile women with normal menstrual cycle aged between 18-40, were divided into two age groups (n = 65) 18-30 years and (n = 53) 31-40 years. Serum concentrations of leptin, estradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured on day1 (menstrual phase), day7 (proliferative/follicular phase), day14 (ovulatory phase), day21 (luteal phase) and day 28(secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle.

Results: There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in leptin levels on day 14 (12.75 + 5.8 ng/mL) and day 21 (12.91 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 18-30 years compared to day 14 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) and day 21 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 31-40 years. Leptin was positively correlated with FSH on day 14, with LH on day 7 and day 21; likewise, with progesterone on day 21 and day 28 and with estradiol on day 7 and day 14 for both age groups.

Conclusions: The serum leptin level was at the lowest level during the menstrual and secretory phase and the highest level was around the luteal phase. The significant increase ofleptin in the younger age group raise this question whether circulating leptin has any role to play in the age of pregnancy and fertility. Data in this study shows that leptin level was affected with increase in age; therefore changes in leptin level will affect fertility in this study suggest that there may be a relation between leptin levels and fertility.

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