hCG is a generic name for 5 biologically active molecules that share a common α and ß-subunit amino acid sequence. These 5 molecules have key biological function in human pregnancy and human cancer. This review examines these molecule in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free ß and hyperglycosylated free ß are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines that act by antagonizing a TGFß receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies.The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human death.


Copyright © 2011, Kowsar M.P.Co. All rights reserved.


"/> hCG is a generic name for 5 biologically active molecules that share a common α and ß-subunit amino acid sequence. These 5 molecules have key biological function in human pregnancy and human cancer. This review examines these molecule in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free ß and hyperglycosylated free ß are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines that act by antagonizing a TGFß receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies.The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human death.


Copyright © 2011, Kowsar M.P.Co. All rights reserved.


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hCG, the Centerpiece of Life and Death

AUTHORS

Laurence A. Cole 1 , *

1 USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, [email protected], USA

How to Cite: Cole L. hCG, the Centerpiece of Life and Death, Int J Endocrinol Metab. Online ahead of Print ; 9(2):335-352. doi: 10.5812/kowsar.1726913X.3398.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: 9 (2); 335-352
Article Type: Review Article
Received: February 5, 2011
Accepted: March 20, 2011
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Abstract

hCG is a generic name for 5 biologically active molecules that share a common α and ß-subunit amino acid sequence. These 5 molecules have key biological function in human pregnancy and human cancer. This review examines these molecule in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free ß and hyperglycosylated free ß are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines that act by antagonizing a TGFß receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies.The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human death.


  • Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
    Article shows the multiple functions that hCG variant have in pregnancy, and in normal pituitary function in women. As also shown, hCG variants are misused by all human malignancies to drive growth, invasion and metastases.
  • Please cite this paper as:
    Cole LA. hCG, the Centerpiece of Life and Death. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;9(2):335-52.
  • DOI: 10.5812/kowsar.1726913X.3398

Copyright © 2011, Kowsar M.P.Co. All rights reserved.


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