Review of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Iranian Water Resources


Meghdad Pirsaheb 1 , Razieh Khamutian 1 , Saeedeh Pourhaghighat 1 , * , Adel Esmaeeli Salumahaleh 2

1 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, Iran

How to Cite: Pirsaheb M , Khamutian R , Pourhaghighat S , Esmaeeli Salumahaleh A . Review of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Iranian Water Resources, Int J Health Life Sci. 2015 ; 1(1):e69809.


International Journal of Health and Life Sciences: 1 (1); e69809
Published Online: December 08, 2014
Article Type: Review Article
Received: April 18, 2014
Accepted: October 27, 2014


Urbanization, industrial development, mining, and agriculture all contribute to the pollution of the environment. Water resources are considered to be a vital part of the environment and are especially impacted by pollution from heavy metals. Because of the detrimental effects of heavy metal contamination on public health, the present study reviews previous research on Iranian water resources in terms of concentrations of heavy metals in the last 20 years. This study will be the first step toward managing and solving this critical public health concern. This study is a systematic review that aims to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in Iranian surface and groundwater resources. Iranian and non-Iranian databases, including Iran Medex, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ISI Web of knowledge, were reviewed for papers over the last 20 years from 1992 to 2012. Thirty-nine relevant papers were analyzed. Most studies reported the concentrations of heavy metals to be above the standard level. In groundwater resources, concentrations of Pb and Cd are above medium level, whereas in surface water resources, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Fe are above the standard level. Accordingly, the increase in heavy metal concentrations is due to the pollution of mining and related industries, and also the excessive use of pesticides in agricultural land, and so on. Regarding high the concentration of heavy metals in several areas, particularly around industrial and agricultural sites, the government should administer strict environmental regulations to reduce the concentrations of these metals in order to protect the environment and public health from damage; otherwise, irreparable damages will occur to the environment and public health.


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