Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part I


Vahid Ziaee 1 , * , Zahra Ahmadinejad 2 , Sedigeh Mansori 3 , Neda Alijani 4 , Yahya Aghighi 5 , Nima Parvaneh 6 , Mohammad-Hassan Mordinejad 7








How to Cite: Ziaee V, Ahmadinejad Z, Mansori S , Alijani N , Aghighi Y , et al. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part I, Iran J Pediatr. 2014 ; 24(1):1-13.


Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: 24 (1); 1-13
Published Online: November 16, 2013
Article Type: Review Article
Received: January 10, 2013
Accepted: September 13, 2013


Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA. In each patient with periodic fever, acquired infection with chronic and periodic nature should be ruled out. It depends on epidemiology of infectious diseases. Some of them such as Familial Mediterranean fever and PFAPA are common in Iran. In Iran and other Middle East countries, brucellosis, malaria and infectious mononucleosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of periodic fever disorders especially with fever and arthritis manifestation. In children, urinary tract infection may be presented as periodic disorder, urine analysis and culture is necessary in each child with periodic symptoms. Some malignancies such as leukemia and tumoral lesions should be excluded in patients with periodic syndrome and weight loss in any age. After excluding infection, malignancy and cyclic neutropenia, FMF and PFAPA are the most common periodic fever disorders. Similar to other countries, Hyper IgD, Chronic Infantile Neurologic Cutaneous and Articular, TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. In part 1 of this paper we reviewed the prevalence of FMF and PFAPA in Iran. In part 2, some uncommon auto-inflammatory disorders such as TRAPS, Hyper IgD sydrome and cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes will be reviewed.



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