Orofacial Clefts and Risk Factors in Tehran, Iran: A Case Control Study


N Taghavi 1 , * , M Mollaian 2 , P Alizadeh 2 , M Moshref 2 , Sh Modabernia 2 , AR Akbarzadeh 2

1 Assistant Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, [email protected], Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

How to Cite: Taghavi N, Mollaian M, Alizadeh P, Moshref M, Modabernia S, et al. Orofacial Clefts and Risk Factors in Tehran, Iran: A Case Control Study, Iran Red Crescent Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 14(1):25-30.


Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal: 14 (1); 25-30
Article Type: Research Article
Received: May 12, 2011
Accepted: September 14, 2011


Background: Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) or cleft palate only (CPO) are orofacial clefts with multifactorial etiology. These include environmental factors and heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore, studies on different and homogenous populations can be useful in detecting related factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk factors in patients with non-syndromic cleft in Tehran, Iran.


Methods: Data from 300 patients and 300 controls were collected between 2005 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to calculate relative risk by odds ratio (OR) and %95 confidence interval.


Results: Low maternal age (OR=1.06, 95% CI, 1.011-1.113), low socioeconomic status (OR=0.23, 95% CI, 0.007-0.074), maternal systemic disease (OR=0.364; 95% CI, 0.152-0.873) and passive smoking (OR=0.613, 95% CI, 0.430-0.874) increased the risk for CL/P and CPO. There was a significant difference in iron and folic acid use during pregnancy when the case and control groups were compared.


Conclusion: In assessing for orofacial cleft risk, we should consider lack of folic acid supplementation use, maternal age and systemic diseases and passive smoking as risk factors.

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