Prevalence of Pre-hypertension and Risk Factors in an Iranian Population: East of Iran


Toba Kazemi 1 , Tahmine Tavakoli 1 , * , Morteza Hajihosseini 1 , Elahe Yari 1

1 Birjand Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran

How to Cite: Kazemi T, Tavakoli T, Hajihosseini M, Yari E. Prevalence of Pre-hypertension and Risk Factors in an Iranian Population: East of Iran, Int Cardio Res J. 2018 ; 12(1):e10335.


International Cardiovascular Research Journal: 12 (1); e10335
Published Online: March 01, 2018
Article Type: Brief Report
Received: February 12, 2018
Accepted: December 12, 2017


Background: Pre-hypertension is known as the precursor of hypertension. We could
prevent or delay hypertension by controlling pre-hypertension.
Objectives: In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its risk
factors in an Iranian population, East of Iran, in 2014.
Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 subjects living
in Birjand, East of Iran in 2014. After explaining about the project, a questionnaire
containing demographic characteristics and clinical backgrounds was filled out by
all subjects. Participants were classified as pre-hypertension (PHTN) if systolic blood
pressure was 120 - 139 mmHg or if diastolic blood pressure was 80 - 89 mmHg. Data were
analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression using SPSS (version 22). P <
0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Among 1286 participants, 21.4% had pre-hypertension. Results showed that
pre-hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking were more prevalent among
men than women (P < 0.001), while prevalence of dyslipidemia was more observed in
women (P < 0.001). In addition, the risk of pre-hypertension was more in men (OR =
2.9), overweight (OR = 3.7), and obese (OR = 5.6) subjects. Smoking cigarette showed a
protective effect (OR = 0.4).
Conclusions: Pre-hypertension was more prevalent among men and obese subjects. Since
pre-hypertension progresses to hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular
disease, it needs more attention by public health policy makers to change people’s


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