Select one

Authorship Rules and Authors' Contribution Last Update : 2021-07-31 11:17:57


Go to Top

Who is an Author?

Our core practice about authorship rules is originated from the ICMJE which defines the Role of Authors and Contributors. Based on ICMJE, we recommend that authorship criteria must be matched with the below conditions:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data.
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. Final approval of the version published.
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. Also, the authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, the gathering of data, technical help, writing assistance, and general supervision of the research group does not warrant authorship. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Please guarantee that anyone stated in the Acknowledgements section has granted its clearance for permission to be listed.

What is a Corresponding Author?

A corresponding author is the individual who, when working on a paper with multiple authors, takes primary responsibility for communicating with the journal you intend to publish in. They communicate with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review and eventual publication process while ensuring all the journal's administrative requirements are adhered to. The corresponding author usually makes themselves available throughout the process to respond to editorial queries. They should also be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work, any questions that arise and to co-operate with requests for additional data or information.

What does a ‘corresponding author’ do?

This corresponding author is:

  • Responsible for the manuscript as it moves through the entire publication process
  • The "time keeper" during each phase of the publication process
  • The primary contact between the journal and all the other authors of the paper
  • Responsible for ensuring that all authors have reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript prior to submission
  • The person who uploads the manuscript to the online submission site, or sends it to the journal for peer review
  • Responsible for distributing communications from the journal (e.g., decision letters, reviewers’ reports).

Go to Top

How to write an "Authors' Contribution"?

An authorship statement is required for every manuscript submitted and should state who has contributed what to the planning, conduct, and reporting of the work described in the article.

Please clarify and write who was responsible for:

  1. Study concept and design:
  2. Acquisition of data:
  3. Analysis and interpretation of data:
  4. Drafting of the manuscript:
  5. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content:
  6. Statistical analysis:
  7. Administrative, technical, and material support:
  8. Study supervision:

Each author's name must be written only by the first letter of the given name and surname. To ensure that article referees or peer reviewers do not know your identity (as author[s] of the manuscript being reviewed), submitted files (i.e., Full Manuscript File; Reply to Reviewers, Appendices, Figures, Abstract) that reviewers can see, should not contain authors' names or affiliations.

  • Example 1:

Author Contributions: Study concept and design: F. M., and H. E.; analysis and interpretation of data: F. M., and S. B.; drafting of the manuscript: F. M.; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: F. M., H. E., and S. B.; statistical analysis: H. E..

  • Example 2:

Y. K. L. developed the original idea and the protocol, abstracted and analyzed data, wrote the manuscript, and is a guarantor. D. P. and S. D. contributed to the development of the protocol, abstracted data, and prepared the manuscript.

  • Example 3:

Y. K. L. conceived and designed the evaluation and drafted the manuscript. E. O. participated in designing the evaluation, performed parts of the statistical analysis and helped to draft the manuscript. W. M. re-evaluated the clinical data, revised the manuscript and performed the statistical analysis and revised the manuscript. S. S. collected the clinical data, interpreted them and revised the manuscript. Q. E. re-analyzed the clinical and statistical data and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Go to Top


Recognize individuals who assisted with the project. Report all sources of grant and other support for the project or study, including funds received from contributors, institutions and commercial sources. Consultancies and funds paid directly to investigators must also be listed.

  • All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgment section.
  • It should include persons who provided technical help, writing assistance and departmental head that only provided general support.
  • Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.

Go to Top

Authorship Changes

NEW: Based on our policy, we don´t accept any change in the authorship including adding or removing the authors after initial submission except for those cases that are decided by the editorial board.

  • Only Minor changes in the authors including any change in the order of authors will be reviewed by the editorial board. Authors should determine the order of authorship among themselves. Also, any alterations must be clarified to the Editor/Editor-in-chief.
  • To apply a request for a minor change in the authors, please fill the agreement form (click to download) and submit it via our support portal at 

Go to Top

Dual First Authorship

If the "corresponding author" requested to introduce two first authors, Kowsar journals can provide you with "dual first authorship". It means that the two authors have contributed equally to a paper.

How to request for dual first authorship?

If you are going to submit your article with dual first authorship, inform us by submitting a ticket via our support portal or inform us during your galley proof. Note that we can accept your request before final publishing and all requests after publishing will be rejected. After confirmation of your request, a footnote will be added to the author's names and an explanation will be given.

Just before final publishing, we can add any dual first authorship. (#367518)

Go to Top

Two Corresponding Authors

The mandate for a single corresponding author has been relaxed. Two corresponding authors may be listed if justified, with one author designated as the primary point of contact responsible for all communication about the manuscript and article. This person will be listed first in the corresponding author section of the published article.


Go to Top

Collaborating Authors

In the case of a group of authors from a company or department, we choose this type of author. This type of author is not an individual author. We use <collab> when a group of authors is credited under a single name. To include all members of a collaborative author, we write their names after the text of the collaborative author name.