Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors of Physical Activities among Adolescents in Sanandaj by Frame Work of Pender’s Health Promotion and Stage of Change Models (2006)


Parvaneh Taymoori 1 , * , Sh Niknami 1 , F Ghofranipour 1

1 Iran

How to Cite: Taymoori P, Niknami S, Ghofranipour F. Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors of Physical Activities among Adolescents in Sanandaj by Frame Work of Pender’s Health Promotion and Stage of Change Models (2006), J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2008 ; 11(4):e80456.


Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: 11 (4); e80456
Published Online: March 19, 2008
Article Type: Research Article
Received: July 23, 2007
Accepted: October 23, 2007


Introduction: Benefits of regular physical activity are well documented in all age groups; Nevertheless, a sedentary lifestyle among adolescents, adults and elderly people in prevalent in nearly all parts of the world. A decline step in activity levels occurs in adolescence. The present study is designed to test: 1) determining the distribution of adolescents on every single one of the stages of change model; 2) determining differences in recognitions, psychosocial factors related to physical activity and physical activity in terms of the stages of change model on practical behavior among adolescents.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study a cluster random sampling in 16 schools selected from 233 junior and senior high schools in Sanandaj, Iran resulted in a number of 1073 students (mean age= 14.37±1.6, 52% females, 48% males) who completed self-report questionnaires which were measured by selected benefited structures from Pender’s Health Promotion model consisting: perceived benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, enjoyment, interpersonal influences, planning to action, also preferences  and stages of change model Such experiments as Chi Square & ANOVA accompanied by Post-Hoc Scheffe and also Mann Whitney for the multistage comparison were used.

Results: The distribution of the participants according to the stages of change model was as follows: pre-contemplation 12.2%, contemplation 17.2%, preparation, 22.5%, action, 18.8% and maintenance 29.3%. The results revealed that there are such differences as gender and age group in terms of the stages of change model.(p<0.001). Psychosocial and cognitive structures differed from pre-contemplation through maintenance significantly (p<0.001). The level of physical activities increased as individuals moved to higher stages of change.

Conclusion: This study investigated Iranian adolescents' physical activity using the proposed framework adapted from Pender’s revised health promotion and stages of change model. The findings of this study have provided important information that it could be used to develop physical activity interventions in this and other similar populations. Intervention strategies to adolescents can be tailored based on the stages of change. Given reports declare that physical activity level concerning girls is dreadfully little & it is also reported that there is a less proportion in the action & maintenance stages in comparison with boys. There is a need to develop tailored interventions so as to promote physical activity based on theory and modes.


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