Kowsar Reference Style
The bibliography is a list of the cited references given at the end of a manuscript. We use the same reference style for all Kowsar journals. Kowsar accepts references based on a modified Vancouver style. Vancouver Style (a numbered style) follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
Writing and managing references using EndNote Software (http://www.endnote.com) is highly recommended. Preparing the references list using EndNote Software will be considered as an advantage to facilitate and accelerate the revision process of the manuscripts.
If you wish to take advantage of this, please use Endnote Software to prepare the references list and upload Endnote library (the file with .enl extension) during submission.
A template of Kowsar style is available here:
Installing EndNote styles:
- Download the Kowsar style.
- Double-click the style file. It should open in EndNote.
- On the open style, go to “File Menu” and choose “Save As”.
- Remove the word "copy" from the end of your style's name, and then click the "Save" button.
- Click on “File Menu” and choose “Close Style”
- Then Go back to your EndNote Library and go to "select another style".
You can use this instruction based on your operating system: Install Additional Output Styles
Export EndNote Library From Word File
- Open the manuscript in Microsoft Office Word.
- Click the EndNote tab.
- Choose Export Traveling Library under the Export to EndNote tab. ...
- Click OK, and the references in the manuscript will be automatically imported into the desired EndNote Library.
You can use this instruction based on your operating system: Export EndNote Traveling Library
Based on our policy in Kowsar, at least 80% of the references must be retrieved from valid sources and have DOI. The number of valid references can be detected by Crossref Simple Text Query.
In the Kowsar style, the numbers are the only indication required in the text, allocated in ascending sequence, and presented in the text either in the brackets, or superscript format. For example: "..... with depression from increased telephone support (1), better cooperation be..... follow up (2-5,7,10)."
Types of Reference
- Journal Articles
- WWW documents
- Author's surname, followed by the initials or first name; for articles by up to and including six authors, list all authors separated by commas
- The title of the article, followed by a full stop
- The title of the journal abbreviated. No punctuation should be used.
- Date of publication: the year followed by the month (abbreviated to three letters) and the day followed by a semi-colon.
- The volume and issue number, the latter in brackets, followed by a colon
- The page numbers, followed by a full stop
Tips 1: How to find a journal abbreviation?
Search the journal title in one of the below database. If you cannot find a particular journal title in the NLM database, check one of the following.
If you still cannot find an abbreviation, build one using the ISSN International Centre's LTWA (LTWA stands for List of Title Word Abbreviations, go to Access to the LTWA). For example, if you had an article from the fictitious Annals of Egyptian Nutrition, you would find the abbreviation for Annals (Ann), then the abbreviation for Egyptian (Egypt) and, finally, the abbreviation for Nutrition (Nutr) to come up with Ann Egypt Nutr.
List the first six authors followed by et al.
Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al.Vitamin E and Respiratory Tract Iinfections in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation
- Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.
- Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed ID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.
Organization as the author
- Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
- Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2507-18.
Article not in English
- Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.
Volume or issue with the supplement
- Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
- Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
Volume or issue with the part
- Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
- Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
- Each author's surname followed by the initials (in the same order as they appear on the title page), a comma should separate each author's name.
- The title of the book
- The edition number of the book, if there has been more than one edition. Abbreviate the edition to the Ed.
- Place of publication or town of origin, followed by a colon
- The publisher's name, followed by a semi-colon
- The year of publication
- Author/editor's surname author/editor's first name or initials. Editor [if appropriate]. Title of page. Title of site. Last update or copyright date. URL (Access date).
- Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL: http://www.rcgp.org.uk/information/publications/information/PDFInfo/21_OCT_03.pdf
Article in an online format
Author's surname, initials. (Year) Document title. Journal title, Volume (part).
Drasin, Todd, Dutson, Erik and Gracia, Carlos. Use of a Robotic System as Surgical First Assistant in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199(3).
- Example: Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.
- Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct - [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.thehealthcareblog.com/the_health_care_blog/.
- KidneyNotes.com [Internet]. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 - [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.
- NHS Executive. Clinical Governance: Quality in the New NHS. London: Department of Health; 1999.
- Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.
Dictionary and similar references
- Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.
In press or forthcoming materials
- Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.