Comparing Gain and Loss Framed Message Texting (SMS) on Foot Self- Care Behaviors Among Women with Type 2 Diabetes


Z Baji 1 , * , F Zamani Alavijeh 2 , Gh Shakerinejad 3 , M Tehrani 4


2 Department of Public Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur Medical Sciences University, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Health Education Research Department,, Health Education, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Health Education Research Department, Ahvaz, Iran

How to Cite: Baji Z, Zamani Alavijeh F, Shakerinejad G , Tehrani M. Comparing Gain and Loss Framed Message Texting (SMS) on Foot Self- Care Behaviors Among Women with Type 2 Diabetes, Shiraz E-Med J. 2018 ; 19(Suppl):e66298. doi: 10.5812/semj.66298.


Shiraz E-Medical Journal: 19 (Suppl); e66298
Published Online: February 23, 2017
Article Type: Abstract
Received: January 15, 2018
Accepted: January 01, 2017



Background: The effectiveness of the educational message for motivating to change behavior may be greater than the actual contentof a message, depending on how the message is designed.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of gain and loss messages via SMS mobile phone on foot self-care behaviors in women with Type 2 diabetes who were referred to the Ahwaz diabetic clinic.
Methods: In this randomized controlled trial study, 189 Type 2 diabetes patients were selected by convenience sampling and
then randomly divided into 3 exp. groups and cont. group. Two experimental groups received gain and loss educational message
of foot care behaviors via mobile phone short message service for 2 months. Research data were collected through interviews
using demographic and disease characteristics questionnaires and the summary of diabetes self-care activities were measured.
The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS 16 software, paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Chi-square at the level of 0.05 significance.
Results: Before the intervention disease characteristics, individual variables and the average score of foot care behaviors of the
study groups were similar. After the intervention, a significant increase occurred in the mean score foot care in experimental
groups (P = 0.001). It was also shown that this increase in loss framed message group is significantly more than the gain message group (P = 0.01).
Conclusions: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs based on mobile phone short message
service and loss framed messages could improve foot- care behaviors in diabetic patients.


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