Long-term Effects of Mustard Gas on Iranian Veterans.

AUTHORS

SM Alavian 1 , * , F Fallahian 1 , M Shohrati 2 , H Fakher- Yaseri 3 , F Farhad Zamani 3

1 Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

2 Research Center for Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

How to Cite: Alavian S, Fallahian F, Shohrati M, Fakher- Yaseri H, Farhad Zamani F. Long-term Effects of Mustard Gas on Iranian Veterans., Shiraz E-Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 10(2):49-58.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Shiraz E-Medical Journal: 10 (2); 49-58
Published Online: April 1, 2009
Article Type: Research Article
Received: December 22, 2008
Accepted: March 1, 2009
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Abstract

Abstract: During the Iraq-Iran war of 1980 -1988, the most commonly used chemical warfare agents (CWA) were nerve agents and sulfur mustard gas (SM). SM was used frequently as a chemical weapon by Iraq during the war against Iran, and had deleterious effects on Iranian military troops and the unprotected inhabitants of Sardasht, Iran and Halabche, Iraq. In this report, we review the scientific literature to develop an understanding of the health consequences that victims from both countries experienced as a result of exposure to SM. Currently, 45 000 Iranians are suffering from the long-term effects of mustard gas, which includes cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, neuromuscular and ocular complications. Because many of the health consequences associated with SM exposure have a late onset, and because these effects can drastically reduce quality of life, it may be necessary to instruct military experts to equip and train local chemical and biological response teams in order to establish strategies for inhibiting the production and use of chemical weapons. In addition, it is highly recommended that any remaining chemical weapons existing around the world are safely destroyed.

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© 2009, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
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