Antifungal and Anti-bacterial Synergistic Effects of Mixture of Honey and Herbal Extracts


Khosravi-Darani Kianoush 1 , * , Ramin Khaksar 1 , Saeideh Esmaeili 1 , Fatemeh Seyed-Reihani 2 , Alaleh Zoghi 3 , Saeede Shahbazizadeh 4

1 Department of Food Technology Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Industrial Technology, University Science Malaysia, Pulau Penang, Malaysia

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahr-e-Qhods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

How to Cite: Kianoush K, Khaksar R, Esmaeili S, Seyed-Reihani F, Zoghi A, et al. Antifungal and Anti-bacterial Synergistic Effects of Mixture of Honey and Herbal Extracts, Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2013 ; 15(8):e92901.


Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: 15 (8); e92901
Published Online: December 30, 2012
Article Type: Research Article
Received: February 15, 2012
Revised: April 13, 2012
Accepted: June 10, 2012


Background: By increasing resistance of several bacterial and fungal species to many
kinds of antibiotics, applications of natural base compounds e.g. honey and medicinal
herbs have been more attractive. The aim of present research is evaluation of anti-bacterial
and anticandida effects of three kinds of honey of Iran together with alcoholic extract of
mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch of ginger on Staphylococcus aureus,
Pseudomonas aueoginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, as pathogens of human
Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum additive
inhibitory concentration (MAIC) were determined by the agar diffusion method by
dilution method in Sabouraud agar. By inoculation of 10 μL from suspension and
appearance of colorless vesicles, MIC was determined. Growth inhibition was calculated
by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U and t-student tests. All experiments were conducted three
times. MIC for three variety of honey on Staphylococcus aureus (32, 30, 29% v/v),
Pseudomonas aeroginosa, (70, 67, 71% v/v), Escherichia coli (40, 35, 39% v/v) and
Candida albicans (45, 48, 50% v/v) are reported. While, the MAIC for the growth
inhibition of honeys together with extract of mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch
of ginger were reduced.
Results: The results show that ginger extract has more significant impact on
microorganism growth with respect to others. Pseudomonas aeroginosa was the most
susceptible microorganisms to ginger extract. Growth inhibitory effect of ginger extract
was more significant than ginger starch.
Conclusion: Addition of herbal extract increases antibacterial and anticandida properties
of honey thus letting hope for a honey benefit and would constitute an alternative way
against the resistance to bacteria.


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