Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives


masoomeh maarefvand 1 , Peyman Hasani-Abharian 2 , Hamed Ekhtiari 3 , *

1 Department of Social Work, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran

2 Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran

3 Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

How to Cite: maarefvand M, Hasani-Abharian P, Ekhtiari H. Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives, Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012 ; 14(9):e93216.


Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: 14 (9); e93216
Published Online: October 16, 2012
Article Type: Review Article
Received: May 01, 2011
Accepted: May 11, 2011


Background : Drug craving is considered as one of the main cores of drug dependency and addiction. Multidimensionality of drug craving, its cultural-bounded features and its intra individual rapidly changing nature makes it difficult to be measured. Nowadays, regarding different psychometric approaches, there are various instruments available for measurement of different aspects of drug craving but mainly for Latin-based languages in North America and European countries. High prevalence and special conditions, and unique subcultures in substance abuse and addiction in many countries, like Iran, make the design of culturally validated instruments for drug craving assessment priority.
Materials and Methods : Comprehensive review on drug craving measurement instruments for Persian speaking subjects have been performed by searching in databases (ELSEVIER, Science Direct and Scientific Information Database (SID)) and investigating of related documents on regional experiences.
Results : In this article seven main categories of drug craving instruments have been reviewed focusing on validated versions in Persian language including: self-reports, reinforcement “proxies”, drug self administration, psycho physiological responding, neurobiological responding, cognitive processing and expressive methods.
Conclusion : Reviewing on weak and strength points of each instrument group and national and regional experiences shows that designing and validating a new series of ecologically-validated instruments for multidimensional measurement of drug craving in different addiction subcultures should be prioritized to cover current methodological gaps in substance abuse studies in Iran.



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