Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

AUTHORS

Leila Azadbakht 1 , Mohammad H. Rouhani 2 , Ahmad Esmaillzadeh 1 , *

1 Associate Professor of Nutrition Science, Food Security Research Center, School of Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

2 MSc Student of Nutrition, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

How to Cite: Azadbakht L, Rouhani M H, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children, Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012 ; 14(2):e93576.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: 14 (2); e93576
Published Online: March 09, 2012
Article Type: Research Article
Received: January 26, 2012
Accepted: February 08, 2012
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Abstract

Background:  To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian school aged children.

Materials and Method:  This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis.

Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.7% in this population. We identified 4 major dietary patterns: "healthy", "western", "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns. Children in top quintile of "sweet dietary pattern” score had greater odds for having ADHD as compared with those in the lowest quintile (Odds ratio: 3.95 95% CI: 1.16, 15.31 p=0.03). Greater adherence to "fast food" dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher risk of having ADHD (Odds ratio: 3.21 95% CI: 1.05, 10.90 p=0.03). No overall significant associations were seen between either healthy or western dietary patterns with ADHD. All these analysis were done in the controlled model for confounders.

Conclusion: We found significant independent associations between "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns and prevalence of ADHD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

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